2019 Speakers

  • Francesco Abbà

    Sales & Marketing Manager Cannon Afros

    Mr. Francesco Abbà, born in 1960 , holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Polytechnic University of Milan (the most prestigious Technical University in Italy). He joined Afros S.p.A (“Afros”), a Company of the Cannon Group,  in 1987 as Junior Area Manager. In 1992, Mr. Abbà was hired by Bono Energia S.p.A. (“Bono) as After Sales Manager. Mr. Abbà was named Bono Sales Manager in 1997. In the following 11 years, Mr. Abbà was instrumental in rebuilding the Commercial organization of Bono worldwide, opening new markets and being a main player, in conjunction with Bono’s Technical and Operations Team, in re-launching the Bono brand.

    In 2008, Mr. Abbà was appointed Cannon Group Marketing Manager, with the task of building the Marketing function at Group level. Since 2009, Mr. Abbà took gradually over the roles of  Sales Manager for the Continuous Panel , Refrigeration, and Thermoforming Business lines of Ergos S.p.A., another Cannon Group Company (he relinquished the Cannon Group Marketing Manager role in 2012).

    Since 2013 he  was appointed  as  Sales  & Marketing  Manager for  Cannon Afros S.p.A. and  he still holding  this  position.

    Some of the products and technologies mastered by Mr. Abbà are Industrial boilers, Energy management (including waste gas heat recovery and optimization of electric energy consumption), polyurethane metering units, mixing heads , conveyors and presses, moulds.

  • Nicholas Abbatiello

    Distinguished Engineer Dell Technologies

    Nick is currently a Distinguished Engineer in DELL Technologies’ Experience Innovation Group.  He joined DELL twelve years ago from the former General Electric Plastics business where he also worked for twelve years.  For the past seven year he has been focused on driving innovation in key areas such as; new materials, manufacturing processes and functional coatings.  Nick led the development and implementation of industry firsts such as CFRP using Post Industrial Recycle Fiber plus CFRP with Post Consumer Recycle resin and Post Industrial Recycle Fiber.  He led the development and implementation of thermoplastic Continuous Carbon Fiber into Dell’s notebooks and the process to support high volume manufacturing for thermoplastic Carbon Fiber.  He enjoys the challenge to develop materials and processes to reduce the impact on the environment.

  • Andrew Abbott

    Carbon Fibre Team Leader CSIRO

    Andrew trained as a Mechatronic Engineer and has developed expertise in a diverse range of engineering fields since joining CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). CSIRO is Australia’s national research organisation whose purpose is to solve the greatest challenges using innovative science and technology to benefit Australian industry and the community. 

    As part of CSIRO’s Advanced Fibre’s and Chemical Industries Program he has worked predominantly in materials based projects providing mechanical engineering expertise to this broad area. He has led a team of engineers that designed and manufactured instrumentation and devices for use in a wide range of research areas including materials fabrication and characterisation, and deployable large, lightweight structures.  Andrew has also developed biomedical devices including the development of a miniaturised Biomedical Optic Fibre Sensor and a customised extrusion process for manufacturing medical grade fibres used to form a conduit for nerve regrowth.  

    Andrew’s current role is Leader of the Carbon Fibre Team undertaking research and development directed at high value carbon fibre, its precursors, characterisation and applications in industry. The differentiating technology developed is RAFT polymerisation to enable control of the molecular weight distribution and composition of the precursor polymer. The team’s research is focussed on understanding the influence that this control has over the properties of the carbon fibre. To do this the team is focussed on polymer synthesis (RAFT Polyacrylonitrile), precursor “white” fibre spinning and its conversion to carbon fibre and understanding how the characteristics of the fibre are influenced by its chemistry and processing parameters.

  • Alice Havill

    Chief Operating Officer Vartega Inc

    Alice Havill has a Bachelor of Chemical and Materials Engineering from the University of Auckland (New Zealand) and an MBA from the University of Denver.  As Vartega’s COO, Alice oversees the company's research and development, material production, and engineering activities, ensuring alignment with the company's business strategy for technology commercialization. Her engineering and leadership career has spanned a number of industries, including biofuel commercialization, appliance manufacturing and raw material processing; with these roles travelling her around the world from Asia to Europe to North America

  • Frazer Barnes

    Managing Director ELG Carbon Fibre

    Frazer has more than 30 years’ experience in the composites industry, and for the last 4 years has been heavily involved in carbon fibre recycling. After graduating with a materials science degree, Frazer first worked as a wind turbine blade design engineer before moving into the composites industry with SP Systems (now Gurit). After working on the design and development of composite structures for the marine, oil and gas and defence industries, Frazer moved to DML where he ran the composites business unit, which was a pioneer in the use of carbon fibre to rehabilitate existing civil infrastructure. From 2000 to 2010, Frazer worked for Cytec Engineered Materials in the UK, US and China, culminating in the construction of a composites manufacturing plant in Shanghai. From there, Frazer moved to Hengshen Carbon Fibre where he led efforts to position the company as a global supplier of carbon fibre. It was there that Frazer first became aware of the importance of recycling, leading to a cooperation with Adesso Advanced Materials to evaluate the possibilities of recyclable epoxies. After a short spell assisting Adesso refining its commercial strategies, Frazer returned to the UK to become Managing Director of ELG Carbon Fibre, where he has guided the company through the industrialisation of its carbon fibre recovery process and overseen the expansion of the companies capabilities to produce a range of recycled carbon fibre products for the composites and compounding industries.

  • Andrea Bedeschi

    General Manager Riba Composites

    Graduated in Electronic Engineering , started his working career as  electronic designer in the rail division of a multinational company (2 years) and then he moves to other companies gaining experiences in several fields of the mechanical and electronic industry.

    Professional background:
    30-year multidisciplinary career in multinational companies for:
    Business Management
    Program Management
    Procurement / Supply Chain

    In 2004 he joined Riba Composites as General Manager with the following tasks: 

    - Organizational design & company development (change management)
    - Stakeholders relations
    - World class operational efficiency

    Business Management:
    Develop and implement strategic business plan; Manage, coach and built up high performance teams, led cross-functional processes and achieve business goals.

    Map company value-chain processes, implement best practices of LEAN mfg operations, ISO9000/9100 environment. Led the development and launch in production of TIER-1 co-design projects for automotive/aerospace OEM's customers, start up of production facilities.

    Procurement / Supply Chain:
    Optimize complex supply chain processes; redesigned logistics flows; improve company´s cash flow
    Reduced material costs through strategic sourcing methodology and cost engineering, integrate risk management strategies in procurement.

    Pursue and negotiate new businesses; gain market-share; extend relations with customers

  • Ing. Paolo Bettini

    Assistant Professor at Department of Aerospace Science and Technology Politecnico di Milano

    [Fototessera] Paolo Bettini is Assistant Professor at Department of Aerospace Science and Technology of Politecnico di Milano. Presently, he is lecturer of “Aerospace Technologies and Materials” in the master courses of Aeronautical Engineering, Space Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Nanomaterials and Materials Engineering.

    His main research activities are focused on smart materials and their integration on Smart Structures, especially on the development of Health Monitoring Systems and composite structures with morphing capabilities. Paolo Bettini is the author of more than 80 papers printed on international journals or presented at international conferences.

    He has participated in many european and italian research projects and he has worked with several Italian companies and research centres.

  • Ing. Lorenzo Cartabia

    Technical Director Plyform Composites Srl

    After the Master Degree of Aerospace Engineer from Milan Polytecnic, he started his experience in one of the major OEM, Aermacchi, now part of Leonardo Company. The main strong focus on Composite Material applied on Jet Trainers and Nacelles provided a good knowledge with all the composite processes from design to manufacturing and certification. After this experience he moved to another Italian OEM (Piaggio Aersopace) for the development of new products. He reach the responsibility of Manufacturing Engineering before moving to the PLYFORM. Actually he is Technical Director in Plyform Composite with the major responsibility in the development of new businesses.

  • John Davidson MSc

    Product Director, Oxidation and Carbonisation Cygnet Texkimp

    John has been in the Carbon Fibre manufacturing industry since 1982, working first on the development of Courtaulds large tow precursors and their conversion into Oxidised fibres for RK Carbon Fibres Ltd, which was closely followed by 3, 6, and 12k precursors for conversion to Carbon Fibres.

    He became involved in plant construction in 1986 as part of a team working on Technology Transfer Projects in India, China and South Korea. In 1991 he left RK Carbon and was involved in a project in Russia after which, in 1995, he returned to India and China on Technology Transfer Projects for RK Carbon.

    In 1997 RK Carbon was acquired by SGL Technic Ltd at which point he was appointed Project Manager for a £25m inward investment project to build two state of the art Carbon Fibre production lines in Scotland.

    He left SGL in 2003 to form Milled Carbon Ltd, where they developed the world’s first commercial continuous carbon fibre composite recycling process.  The company was later acquired by German metals reclamation company ELG Haniel.

    In 2008 he began working on Technology Transfer Projects in Italy, Turkey and Portugal with US and European partners. Further Technology Transfer Projects continued over the next 5 years in China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Thailand and India.

    In 2014, after over 12 years of discussing collaboration possibilities, he joined Cygnet-Texkimp Ltd in Northwich, Cheshire, where he offers turn-key solutions for Carbon Fibre Production Facilities.

    • +44 (0) 7702 346333
    • United Kingdom
  • Dr Niklas Garoff

    Business Develoment Manager, Division Biomaterials Stora Enso AB

    Niklas has a PhD in Paper Technology and a MSc in Chemical Engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm Sweden. After graduation he started his career at Stora Enso where he now works as business development manager at the Biomaterials division. Seven years ago he initiated the carbon fiber project at Stora Enso and he has been leading the project from the very start.

  • Eng. Alejandro Castro Linares

    EMEA Carbon Fibre Product Manager Mitsui & Co. Italia SpA



    Coming soon..

  • Adrian Gill

    Lead specialist, Blade Vestas Wind Systems

    Dr Adrian Gill is Lead Specialist for Blades at Vestas Wind Systems with responsibility for Structural Engineering and Materials. Vestas is the world’s largest user of carbon fibre giving him an interesting perspective on the carbon fibre industry.

    Based in the United Kingdom, Adrian has been at Vestas for 12 years. Prior to this, he obtained his PhD and Masters at Imperial College, London



  • Hanno Pfitzer

    Technology CFK BMW Group



    Coming soon..

  • Dr Tilo Hauke

    Head of Central Innovation SGL Group

    Tilo Hauke was born in 1968, now lives in Wertingen, Germany with his wife and three children. He holds a PhD in Pysics and an Executive MBA. He leads the Central Innovation Department of SGL Group since September 01, 2014. 

    He is a member of board of several industrial organisations and scientific advisory boards, among them the German Carbon Composites membership corporation. 

  • Dr Thomas Henke

    Senior R&D Engineer, Body and Exterior Trim, Team Lead “Carbon Visuals” BMW Group

    2014 – today     BMW Group: Senior R&D Engineer, Body and Exterior Trim, Team Lead “Carbon Visuals”

    2008 – 2014       RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Metal Forming: Senior Research Scientist, Head of Department “Materials Characterization”

    For over 10 years, Thomas has been involved in the industrialization of entire, multi-stage process chains of pressed products for very high volumes. Here, it is extremely important to have a deep understanding of the interactions between process and material. This understanding alone enables for the overall optimization of final product properties and resources used in the process and material.

    Since his time in university research, where Thomas has mainly dealt with process chains for the production of metallic components, Thomas is dedicated to optimizing the highly industrialized pressing processes of CFRP components at the BMW Group. Among other things, Thomas has developed rapid test systems for the in-line characterization of CFRP semi-finished products, which make an important contribution to implementing Industry 4.0 in CFRP mass production and, not least, contribute to a significant improvement in scrap rates. Recently, Thomas deals with process chains for the production of visual carbon fiber products.

    He leads the R&D team for the development and optimization of existing and future manufacturing processes for BMW in-house production and is deeply involved in external supplier qualification.


  • Ing. Carlo Della Bona

    EMEA Key Account Director G-ANGELONI

    MBA, 15+ years experienced Key Account director with deep technical and analytical skills combined with general management ones.

    Deep knowledge of advanced materials, mainly carbon fibre, and strong international background in project management and R&D activity on automotive, sporting goods and marine markets.

  • Dylan Jones

    Product Development Boeing

    Dylan Jones is a Senior Manager in Boeing Commercial Airplanes for Product Strategy and Future Airplane Development.   Dylan has responsibility across Boeing's industry-leading materials technologies for driving R&D strategy, executing development and accelerating value capture through implementation on current and future products. 

    He manages strategic technology development investments and leads enterprise R&D roadmaps in composites, metals, assembly, additive manufacturing, and propulsion.



  • Eng. Georg Kaesmeier

    Managing Partner Forward Engineering GmbH



    Coming soon..

  • Abramo Levato

    General Manager HP Composites SpA

    Abramo Levato has about 20 years of experience in the composite materials sector and since 2014 he has been the General Manager of HP Composites SpA, a leading company in the production of advanced composite components in carbon fiber for the Automotive and Motorsport sector.

    After graduating in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Catania, Levato worked first as a researcher at Cytec Engineered Materials UK (today Solvay), focusing on the study and testing of chemical formulations as thermosetting mold for advanced composite materials in carbon fiber for
    the Motorsport sector (F1).

    In 2002 Levato moved to ATR, based in Abruzzo, where he started first as Director of the R&D division, then head of the Aerospace Division and then in 2009 became Chief Operating Officer of the entire Group until 2011 when he moved in SAATI Composites (today CIT of the Toray Group) as Technical Sales Manager.

    This path has allowed Levato to increase his skills in the field of advanced composite materials in carbon fiber, and it was this experience that brought him to HP Composites SpA in 2014 where he obtained the position of General Manager at the invitation of Mr. Jacques Nicolet today owner of the Everspeed Group to which HP belongs. Under his leadership, the company has grown exponentially both in terms of the number of human resources, and from 190 in 2014 to 650 today, and in terms of the square meters covered on the territory. The production plants of this important production company cover about 18,000 square meters.

  • Dr Greg Lipoczi

    Business Development Manager - Wind Energy Scott Bader

    Dr Greg Lipoczi is working with composites for more than 15 years, started in manufacturing of automotive, rail, wind energy and aerospace parts in the Omikron Group, continued in working with engineering of wind turbine blades, marine and automotive applications at STRUCTeam, joined the Renault-Nissan Alliances in 2017 dealing with process excellence and digital transformation and since 2019 he is the Business Development Manager at Scott Bader focusing on Wind Energy. Greg has a Master Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma, is a Lean Practitioner, has a Doctorate degree in law, a Masters Degree in economics and various qualifications in composites.

    • United Kingdom
  • Andrew Mafeld

    Managing Director Connectra

    Andrew Mafeld has over thirty years of experience in the global composites industry covering the carbon, glass and natural fibre sectors. He is the founder and Managing Director of the Connectra group of companies, a Swedish based international business development consultancy working in composites materials.

    Prior to founding Connectra in 1998, Andrew held Vice President positions in both commercial and technical areas at Owens Corning, in both Europe and the USA. Earlier in his career, Andrew worked for Procter & Gamble and Monsanto. Andrew has a chemical engineering degree from Imperial College, London, an MBA from INSEAD, France and speaks multiple languages.

    He has authored numerous composites related reports for clients worldwide, including companies, government ministries and regional development agencies. His book on "The Automation of Polymer Composites Manufacturing" was published by JEC in 2010 and he regularly presents papers on the composites industry at conferences in Asia, the USA and Europe.

    • Sweden
  • Laurent Mallet

    Project Manager -Technical Manager for Aeronautics SMAC

    Mr Mallet has more than 15 years professional experience at SMAC which designs and manufactures noise, vibrations & shocks control solutions for aeronautical, space & defense applications.

    Graduated in mechanical engineering in 2003 with a focus on material & vibrations, he has developped various shock & vibrations control solutions, acoustic comfort solutions and composite damping improvement solutions using viscoelastic material.

    His area of expertise includes not only system and material understanding but also design, simulations and testing.

    Since 2014, he is the Aeronautics Technical Manager of SMAC and more involved in the R&D projects.

  • Marcel Remp

    Marketing Manager Automotive Mitsubishi Chemical Carbon Fiber and Composites

    Education: 1999 - 2003 Study Electrical Engineering at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich.

    2007 - 2009 Master of Business Administration (MBA) at Reutlingen University.

    Professional background:  After studying at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich, Mr. Remp served as an officer and company commander in the German Bundeswehr.

    From 2002 to 2007 he also worked as a development engineer in body development and light.

    development at the BMW Group.

    In 2008 he moved to the SGL Group and until 2015 held various leadership positions in the field of

    lightweight construction with carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP).

    Since 2015, Mr. Remp has been working for Mitsubishi Chemicals Carbon Fibers and Composites

    and is coordinating automotive activities on CFRP in Europe.

  • Marino Quaresimin

    Professor, Department of Management and Engineering University of Padova

    Marino Quaresimin is full Professor at University of Padova, where he teaches Mechanics of Materials and Design of Composite Structures at the Undergraduate and Master course in Mechanical Engineering. 

    His research activity is oriented to the study of the structural response and the damage mechanics of composite materials and structures under cyclic (fatigue) loading, as well as to smart materials and methods for the structural health monitoring. He is author of more than 350 scientific publications, editor of Composites Science and Technology  and he was the president of the European Society for Composite Materials.  He has been invited to the scientific committee/advisory board of more than 50 conferences and he coordinated several scientific and industrial research project at national and international level. 


  • Jeffry L. Melville

    Composite Strategy Leader, Supply Chain Commodity Strategy Boeing

    Jeffry Melville serves as the Composite Strategy Lead for Supply Chain at the Boeing Company, with responsibilities spanning commercial aviation (BCA), defense (BDS) and after-market (BGS) businesses.  In his current role, Mr. Melville works closely with Boeing’s BCA Product Development and Research and Development (BR&T) teams. Mr. Melville joined the Boeing Company in financial planning in its 777 Program in 2005, and has worked supply chain contract negotiations and raw material strategy since 2007.

    Prior to joining Boeing, Mr. Melville spent fourteen years with Weyerhaeuser Company as a Financial Project Manager in its Real Estate and Paper divisions, serving in both business development and strategy, and five years in consulting in the “Big 8” (Price Waterhouse & Co.).

    Mr. Melville is a graduate of the University of Colorado with a degree in Economics and Masters in Business Administration, with additional background in materials science and mechanical engineering from Columbia University and Oregon Institute of Technology. 

  • Prof. Andrew Mills

    Principal Research Fellow Composites Manufacturing, Enhanced Composites & Structures Centre Cranfield University

    A highly experienced composite materials and manufacturing engineer. He has 35 years’ experience in composites manufacturing research and applications development with industrial partners in the automotive, aerospace, defence, renewable energy and motorsport sectors.

    Currently he is heading a manufacturing technology group at Cranfield University and consults for UK companies on new applications feasibility, design and manufacturing costing. 

    His research team is focused on the cost effective manufacturing of lightweight composite structures in close partnership with industry.

    Starting with Airbus, on manufacturing process development for the A320’s carbon fibre components, he then moved to Courtauld’s to develop aircraft and medical applications.

    At Cranfield, he has led projects developing; wing box structures and high speed fabric laminating systems for Airbus UK, UAV airframes for BAE SYSTEMS, wing components with Bombardier, new types of prepregs and fabrics with Hexcel Composites and Sigmatex, automotive platforms with Caterham Cars and Axon Automotive, an electric sports car body with Nissan UK and Lotus Cars, Formula 1 car suspension components and crash structures with McLaren Racing, a motorcycle sub-frame with Métisse Motorcycles.

    Currently, he is investigating four areas of composites design and manufacturing through EPSRC, Innovate UK and industrial funding:

    •           High rate, automated manufacturing processes for automotive components using compression moulding and RTM of hybridised continuous and chopped fibre materials.

    •           High speed joining techniques using embedded metallic fittings within carbon fibre, thermoplastic matrix structures.

    •           Techniques for automated multi-materials forming for automotive structures.

    •           Knowledge tools for materials and process selection, manufacturing costing and guidelines for lightweight composites design and manufacturing.

  • Dan Pichler

    CEO CarbConsult

    Daniel Pichler has more than 30 years experience in carbon fiber, composite materials, and other high performance materials and components.  He is Partner / joint Managing Director with CarbConsult GmbH – specialists in strategy and technical consulting in carbon fiber, composite materials, and others.  CarbConsult’s clients have included carbon fiber and composites companies, chemical companies, investor groups and other interested parties in Europe, Asia and the US.  Previously, he has lead carbon fiber businesses and business development with SGL Group, AKSA (now DOWAksa), Holding Company Composites, Armco, and others.  

  • Ilhan Savut

    Analyst BloombergNEF

    Ilhan is an analyst at BloombergNEF's Advanced Materials team, focusing on new materials, advanced manufacturing and the circular economy

  • Julien Sellier

    Managing Director and Co-Founder STRUCTeam

    Julien Sellier is the Co-Founder and Managing Director STRUCTeam Ltd, which provides commercial and technical solutions for its customers in composite materials and CompoSIDE Ltd, a web based composite design and engineering software.  He gained his masters degree in Engineering from the Ecole Centrale de Nantes in 2001 specialising in hydrodynamics majoring in composite structures.  Julien has managed significant projects in Marine, Wind Energy, Oil and Gas, Automotive, Civil and Industrial applications.  His experiences range from design and project management, composite materials development and part manufacturing to Carbon Fibre applications as well as strategic consultancy for leading material manufacturers including Carbon Fibre.

    • United Kingdom
  • Simon Qian

    Board Chairman Hengshen Carbon Limited

    Simon Qian is Board Chairman and President of Hengshen Corporation, a nonlisted public limited company, which is a leading carbon fibre and composite material manufacturing enterprise. Hengshen’s product portfolio includes carbon fibre, fabric, liquid resin, prepreg, adhesive and aero
    composite structure. Hengshen has its manufacturing base in China, material innovation and R&D centre in UK, and Aero composite structure design and engineering centre in Australia.

    Simon Qian has extensive knowledges and experiences in composite materials and component manufacturing. He has participated in many composite application programs both in China and in Europe, covering commercial aerospace, marine, railways and renewable energy.

    Simon Qian also holds Board Chairman position Hengbao Public Limited Company, a listed company offering digital identity & security and embedded technologies, as part of solution to digitalisation and intelligence of composite component & structure.

    Simon Qian held a LLM in International Business Law from University of Liverpool
    and a BSc (Honor) in Accounting and Finance from University of Warwick.

  • Yuri Svistunov

    CEO deputy and Chief Technical Officer UMATEX

    Areas of responsibility: engineering, technical development (precursor, carbon fiber, CF intermediates).

    Background: 10+ years management of CF, PAN-precursor and CF based intermediates manufacturing development (Rosatom-UMATEX) in the areas of new products, equipment and process engineering including new CF plant from the early idea through the main process concept to commissioning and product line development.

    Core education: chemist, material sciences, composite materials.

    • Russian Federation
  • Alberto Zarantonello

    General Manager Cannon Ergos

    Alberto Zarantonello - born in 1959 – is a Chemical Engineer, graduated in 1984 at Politecnico di Milano.

    His career in Cannon started as Project Manager in Cannon Tecnos S.p.A, supplier of turnkey systems for the production of automotive parts;  there he became Sales Manager of the two business lines automotive window encapsulation and acoustic insulation.

    In 1994 he moved, as Sales Manager, to Cannon Afros S.p.A., the world leading supplier of dosing and mixing systems for PU and other multi-components resins. In the same company he became General Manager.

    In 2012 he joined Cannon Ergos S.p.A. as General Manager, that is the position he currently holds. Cannon Ergos is the engineering unit of the Cannon plastic processing technologies, dedicated to the design and construction of turnkey plants and machines.

  • Dan Zenkert

    Professor, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

    Dan Zenkert is since 2001 a professor in Lightweight Structures at the department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering at Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Dan’s main research areas are concerned with various aspects of composite materials and structures, covering aspects on design, testing, analysis, fracture and fatigue. In recent years his research focus has changed towards multi-disciplinary design optimisation and multi-functional composite materials.

    His main current research interest is the area of so called structural batteries aiming at developing structurally load carrying materials that simultaneously store electrical energy like a battery. This research is now extended to include more functionalities to carbon fibre composites, such as sensing, morphing and energy harvesting, all properties intrinsically built into the load carrying material itself.